On Terrestrial Magnetism
and Spiral Nebulae
by Jorge Resines
This time I want to bring my fellow borderlanders not what I have personally found, but translations of two highly interesting articles. They come from an age where it was not possible to do computer-simulations and therefore men of science had to avail themselves of whatever method they could to investigate. Two such methods are herein described. With the first one you will be able to reproduce, on a small scale, the features of the energy grid discovered by Bruce Cathie (with only a small adaptation) and with the other you will be able to duplicate the motions of galaxies and stellar cumuli.
Some comments on the first article: Cathie discovered that our present magnetic poles are the result of TWO interacting grids that are being set-up by flying saucers in order to create a THIRD grid (the poles of which are, respectively, the North and South Magnetic Poles), in this article you will notice that only TWO spherical coils are used but in order to replicate our planetary grid FOUR must be employed.
“About the Inequalities in Distribution of Terrestrial Magnetism” by Mr. P. Idrac, Introduced by Mr. Lippmann (From “Comptes Rendus a L’Academies des Sciences de Paris”, session of December 22, 1913; pages 1488-1490.):
Within an opuscule published in 1889, Sir H. Wilde has exposed his works upon an instrument he called “Magnetarium”, destined to reproduce the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism. 
Despite the objections that Bauer made against it, there exists within his exposition (Wilde’s) a general agreement so much similar to actuality that I have thought it very interesting to begin again this work in order to complete it. The device by Wilde, in fact, did not allow the study of magnetic phenomena at high latitudes and, particularly, within the neighborhood of magnetic poles.
To such a stake I have built a new device with a diameter of 50 centimeters [Translator's Note: 1.62 Cathie's geodesic foot], within which I can supply with electricity the two internal coils without affecting the study in the neighborhood of the poles. 
The new device has allowed me to confirm, within its great outlines, the results by Wilde. But if we research what goes on near the poles we find out that the North pole is at its normal place, but the South pole is at 91° East longitude instead of at 157°, which is almost at the antipodes of the North pole with a distance of 7° only in longitude instead of 73° as in nature. I have found, by adding plates of hard cardboard at all possible positions, to obtain the pole’s actual position and I could not establish it less than 30° from its true location and this after the placing of six layers of hard cardboard at a portion of the Southern hemisphere covered by land; yet this gave as result, at small distances from the South pole, inadmissible irregularities within the magnetic inclination. [TN: Is this provoked by the lack of the two coils, representing the two other poles, or perhaps Monsieur Idrac reproduced upon his small globe an etheric duplicate of the hole at the pole?]
Then it seems impossible to represent, albeit with some rigor, the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism, one could expect to approach actuality when breaking the alignment in the common center of the coils and placing them upon the line of the magnetic poles; but a simple calculation demonstrates that magnetic force should be 2-1/2 times stronger at North Africa than at Oceania, which is manifestly against actuality.  Within the Equator’s neighborhood, however, the results by the device are enough in agreement with the facts and show well that the irregularity in terrestrial magnetism’s distribution is due, at least partially to the magnetizing effect of the seas. This effect is confirmed by the fact that when duplicating thickness with hard cardboard plates at the zones of large depth in the oceans, the results are diminished.
Is it so that the line of zero declination at South America has been re-established 1° toward its actual location and that the East portion of the small oval area with null declination at China has returned to its true place from which it had been detoured about 5° before. The line of null inclination has been modified in the same way West of America and East of Asia, within the first case it was too much. Northward and the oceanic depth upon the coasts of Chile diminished it 1 degrees toward the South. Within the second case it was located too much Southward and it was closer than 2 degrees toward its actual position.
It remains to be seen which is the actual cause of this oceanic magnetizing effect. Must we search for it within the oceanic mass itself or is it not better to think, as Monsieur Berget does, that the thickness of the terrestrial core is different under the seas than under the continents?
For solving this difficulty, I have used a small magnetic declination compass specially built to such a sake, and in which the magnet, with a length of 5 millimeters. [TN: almost 1/5th of Cathie's geodesic inch; a little longer in honor to the truth], could be approached until a distance of 1 millimeter to the terrestrial surface: within these conditions, it is observed a brusque variation of many tens in degrees within declination as to pass from continents to the seas.
This effect is not produced when, as in past experiences, the magnetic compass is placed 2.5 centimeters (almost one British inch) from the terrestrial surface. If the oceans are agitated well because of their mass or because of the elements they contain, we should, when extending those places to the sea, verify a very rapid variation in the declination, and this does not happen. It is then that the opposite hypothesis is the one most possible? 
In definition, we then see that the Magnetarium, which seduces because of its simplicitly in conception, cannot yield in full the reason for the phenomena in terrestrial magnetism. It allows, however, to state that the anomalies in magnetism’s distribution are, in large part, due to the seas’ magnetizing effect. The primordial cause of this effect is difficult to ascertain within the present-day state of Science (1913!), therefore we can attribute, because of the great resemblance, to attribute it to the inequalities upon the terrestrial core at least to a smaller proportion of magnetic materials within maritime regions.
(END OF TRANSLATION)
Yes, it is a very interesting experience that, with present-day materials, it is simpler to reproduce and to improve; however, great care must be taken in ascertaining: size of the four spherical coils; size and location of their support; using or not a variable power source (both in frequency and power); and similar features related with this construction.
My reading of the “Comptes Rendus” up to 1927 (included) has failed to disclose a continuation or improvement of the two experiences detailed in this translation; now comes the second article: “Experiment Reproducing the Spires of Spiral Nebulae” by Mr. Emile Belot, Introduced by Mr. H. Poincare (From “Comptes Rendus a L’Academies des Sciences de Paris, session of June 24, 1912, pages 1780-1782).
Usually the spires of spiral nebula are thought of as synchronic curves that the matter emitted by the core occupies at a given moment, as water does within the jets of an hydraulic tourniquet.
Within this hypothesis, the vector radius of spires diminishes when it turns in the sense of central rotation, but you can also imagine that this vector radius increases and that the spires then follow the masses’ trajectories. This second hypothesis can be  illustrated with the following experience that puts at stake forces that may have their equals in nature (see illustration above). Upon the surface of a basin A, filled with water, we make turn a cylinder BC of radius a, corresponding to the core of spiral nebula. The water surrounding this core will take an angular speed of w, variable with distance to center R, following such a law that:
w(R-a)n = constant (n < 2 ; R > a + b) (1)
At point B, which we suppose fixed at space, we place sequentially cork disks D of radius b; they will adhere to core BC because of the capillary attraction replacing here Newtonian attraction. We animate the liquid A of a relative translation speed V, perpendicular to diameter BC.
The trajectories of disks D will be very different, according to the rotation speed w of the core:
(1st) wl very large: The disks D projected by centrifugal force describe upon the surface of water a spiral S1, because of decreasing speed w after (1) because of the liquid filaments they do hit against.
(2nd) wl diminished: At B, tangential speed w(a+b)-V of disks D cannot vanquish central attraction; speed V will place the disks in contact with the course just at C, but at this point speed w(a+b)-V can surpass that which balances central attraction, the disks abandon the core at C describing a spiral S2, diametrically opposite to S1.
(3rd) wl very feeble: Disks D, despite speed V, remain indefinitely in touch with the core.
Within the three cases the disks do receive from the core a sense of rotation opposite to its motion.
Case of Spiral Nebulae: Because of assimilation with the former mechanism, let us imagine that a star in rotation or a gaseous vortex BC does penetrate a nebula A having a relative translation speed V where direction, changing because of resistance from the medium, will be at a given moment within the equatorial plane of the core.
At B, where the core’s tangential speed is opposite to V, the molecular hits will be at a maximum that will determine the formation of vortexes D composed partially by matter from the core and partially by matter from the nebula. The hits will make maximal at point B repulsive forces others than centrifugal force, that is the thermal force fo explosion analogous that which happens within sunspots, radiation pressure and no doubt also electrical forces. Then vortexes D will abandon the core always at point B and at periodical intervals, for they will have attained it, with a certain mass, a diameter that will further center from attraction center O; in the case where the core is a gaseous vortex, I have found within my “Essai de Cosmogonie Tourbillionaire” (Essay on Vortical Cosmogony) the equation of spire S1:
R – a = be B Omega
Let us follow spire S1: Masses D will either be able to agglomerate themselves in steller groups d1, d2, d3, because of differential speeds within the spire; or because of their rotation upon their axes they will emit around them secondary spires 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. When spire S1 goes a second time along the line OB perpendicular to speed V, that, opposed to the translation speed within the spire, will reflow to extreme d4. Thus we explain with simplicity the Herschellian double-nebula that usually end following one of these spires. Though the core’s rotation energy will be diminished, vortexes D will not be abandon it but at C because of the orbital supplementary speed V. The masses of spire S2 so described, though they traverse the extension of line OC, will be able to, instead of reflowing along spire S1, be dispersed at S2 because of Speed V. This speed can explain also the inequality in distance of the two spires at the core’s center. Spire S2 within case (3rd) can also not be formed in which case the spiral nebula will have only one spire.
All these effects, suggested by the experience described before and foreseen by our theory, are seen visible upon the nebula of the Hunting Dogs (Canes Venatici), where you will recognize the pattern upon the figure. It seems that the theory, where the spires are considered as synchronical curves and not as some trajectories, cannot explain so easily all the particularities of spiral nebula.
(END OF TRANSLATION)
And I want to terminate this text by dedicating it to: Necessity, mother of Invention.
- “I remind the readership that the Magnetarium is composed of two almost-spherical electrical coils, placed within a terrestrial globe, in which one has its axis parallel to that of Earth and the other is inclined 23o 30′ respect the first one; their diameter is as close as possible to a submultiple of the terrestrial globe; it is observed, when covering the surface of the seas with plates of hard cardboard, a remarkable agreement between the magnetic elements as given by a small magnetic compass placed upon the small globe and the same elements as observed in nature; we find, among others, upon the Magnetarium, the existence of a small oval area of magnetic declination at China, the point of crossing at the Atlantic, the lines of equal declination, etc.”
- “The relative intensity of current within two coils was not disclosed by Wilde. Within the studies made with the device placed at the Conservatory of Arts and Measures, I have determined this proportion in the way of obtaining results of the most satisfactory kind. I discovered the current within the coil whose axis is directed following the direction of the terrestrial’s must be FIVE TIMES WEAKER than at the other coil directed along the magnetic axis.”
- “This conclusion is already confirmed by the diminution that it is observed when re-covering Northern Siberia with a layer of hard cardboard; the line of null declination is then re-established partially towards its actual location; or we say that, upon this region of the globe, the geologists admit the existence of a former sea before our age.”