An Excursus into Etheric Technology
by Lindy Millard, BSRA — Round Robin, Vol. XI, No. 4, May-June 1955.
Associate Lindy Millard begins his discussion by emphasizing the importance of a correct choice of "the right kind of ether" for an intelligible analysis of aeroform data from a mathematical engineering approach. His objective is to clarify the basis of the theory of Hermann Fricke (1876-1949). To do this he first devotes a paragraph to what R. Wussow and C. F. Krafft have to say about optical waves in an aerodynamic ether. Krafft's comment on Wussow's article follows:
"Wussow attempted to show that ordinary compressional waves of longitudinal displacement will under proper conditions develop a transverse component by a process similar to diffraction upon passage through a diffraction grating. If Wussow's contentions are correct, then lightwaves may be primarily of longitudinal displacement, the transverse component brought out or accentuated by the polarizing apparatus. And if this interpretation is correct, then do we have any good reason for assuming that the ether is incompressible? One of the main difficulties I have had with Fricke's highly dynamic concept of the ether is that such an ether would be almost sure to have compressional elasticity, similar to a gas. Now is such a concept of what the ether really ruled out by any known fact? The mere fact that light waves have a transverse component does not prove that they do not also have a longitudinal component, and if they do have such longitudinal component, then does it not necessarily follow that the ether must have a compressional elasticity? Perhaps the compressional elasticity should be looked upon, not as a property of the quiescent ether per se, but only as a property of ether in active motion as contemplated by Fricke. In such a case the compressional elasticity would result from its inertia of motion."
Associate Millard then devotes a paragraph to some of the technical terms employed by Krafft. "Compressional waves", he writes, "are what this name implies: waves of compression and decompression, which follow each other in alternated order. Their speed of propagation - the speed at which their effects are traveling - is roughly equal to the average speed of the individual particles that would not themselves travel more than an inch unless a breeze came along to transport them. As to an augmentation in the number of collisions between the particles, per unit of time, these particles simply "pass it on". Now "longitudinal displacement" refers to the distances the particles are moved, along a direction parallel to the line of the longest dimension of the 3-dimensional wave-disturbance, or to put it more clearly: most of the movements of any particle in such waves "dis-place" it along - instead of perpendicular to - the line which the disturbance is passed on, or "propagated" - the "longitudinal" direction. The "transverse component" may be one of the parts of the optical-wave motion, which the later will be resolvable into (after diffraction), and this part of "component" will be perpendicular to the light ray, since this component is called "transverse". A "polarizing apparatus" need not be considered in the following discourse, but to get some idea of what optical polarization means, think about how Polaroid ‘specs' work. The meaning of the word "incompressible" seems self-evident.
"Fricke's highly dynamic concept of the ether" is what I wish to share with BSRA scholars presently.
Fricke's generalized theory of space-ether and matter-energy —
Fricke's "highly dynamic" concept of the ether is that there has existed from eternity an ubiquitous  variety of micro-motions in an infinitely expanded ether which is, for the most part, turbulent - like agitated water. If all vortical (eddy) motions were ab» sent from the ether, then a primary ether would exist - incompressible, continuous, and non»elastic, with rotational motion, However since from eternity this ether has possessed in addition to the streaming motions an innumerable quantity of ball-like eddy globules of all different sizes of "grades", this ether has, as a result of these supplementary vortices, some secondary properties: Compressibility, atomicity, and a quasi-elasticity which is caused by rotational speed. This last-mentioned property is responsible for the pressure of the ether. Because the eternal motions collectively have an omnipresent simultaneity, this concept in itself accounts for the existence of absolute time. The lack of sudden starts and stops in such motions explains the existence of inertial mass in the vortices. Of course, these tiniest vortex balls are not connected with one another through any eddy filaments.
Here I have anticipated any objection: textbooks teach that fluid vortex filaments cannot have any ends which terminate within the fluid, but these filaments must either exist as closed rings or else must terminate on some boundary such as the free surface of the fluid or the wall of the containing vessel. This, however, holds true because of fluid viscosity, which in turn depends on exchanges of momentum between colliding molecules of adjacent stream-layers of flow. But momentum cannot exist unless there is inertial mass present. And yet Fricke postulated for his primordial ether certain vortex balls which do not form closed rings at their range of sizes, nor do any of them extend their rotation axes to some boundary. Actually there is no real contradiction here. The tiniest vortex globules are ellipsoidal in shape and discrete, because they are in their own right the foundational causes of the phenomena of inertial mass and of "bounce" elasticity, since they embody a localized form of uninterrupted eternal motion.
Under certain conditions, comparatively large streams of ether will crowd many of the smallest vortex balls together into coherent streams and lumps of confluent secondary ether. These lumps will contain balls in close-packed formations. And because there are no stronger forces to tear them apart, these lumps can be identified as "plenum" - the uncuttable stuff considered by Greek atomists. From the movement of their integration or construction, they would have the same speed as their component vortex granules, but eventually the lumps may slow down because of collision with encountered vortices, until they no longer have the speed of light, but will finally drift about as etheric dust. However, every one of the vortices continues to spin with undiminished "angular" velocity, which is twice pi divided by the period of rotation. Each particle of etheric dust (or lump) probably retains its original size and shape.
Under the unusual conditions of space, the vortex balls dart about in all directions at random, like atoms of a kinetic gas. Since their energies are in statistical equilibrium, the pressure of the ether will be the same from all sides. It then appears to be isotropic - that is having the same qualities when entered from any arbitrary direction. The illusion that ether is empty space the results. This is the antithesis, counterpart, or complement of the plenum-producing condition.
Between the two extreme conditions, the streaming ether may behave like meandering liquids of various mass-densities and may even occur in various grain- densities. (They are neither "empty" space nor uncuttable plenum.) Although the total energy of the indestructible motion remains constant, the streaming of the liquid-like ethers may undergo changes of configuration so as to exhibit all different velocities and accelerations from localized vortex motions (matter-corpuscles at rest) on the one hand, to rapid electric field streamlines (with the velocity of light) on the other hand. If we include also the vortex filaments of Maxwell's concept of the magnetic field, and the symmetrical ether-sink field of gravitation considered recently by Dr. O.C. Hilgenberg, then it seems possible with this generalized ether theory of  Fricke to explain all phenomena of Nature.
There is one property of this ether which makes possible coherence and its absence of grain-flaw, and that is a special kind of friction which only the ether possesses. This special friction that Fricke postulated controls the direction of flow but does not dissipate the energy. This may be called "quasi-friction". It can coexist with the eternal motion of the ether. Electromagnetism would not be capable of performing any work on electrons without it.
OUR PROBLEM is to determine how the density of inertial mass affects the vibration rate (frequency). We need to find out what would happen also in evanescent materiality, in other planes of existence as well. Similar natural laws must be common to most of the planes. We have considered a theory of the ether which will be used herewith as the correct basis on which a solution of our problems will be developed.
Effects of inertial mass and pressure on sonic-wave frequency —
If the ether of apparently empty space is actually an aerodynamic fluid, then the mathematics of acoustical engineering must be applicable to this ether. Then the equations for sonic waves in air can be adapted for use within the concept of optical waves in space - for instance, those above the earth atmosphere.
Now the mechanics of a sonic wave has been considered by engineers to be analogous to systems of mechanical vibration, An increase in air pressure will increase to property of the air which is related to - or rather, analogous with - the "stiffness" of a metal coil spring. This will increase the propagation of a sonic wave. The wavelengths will be made correspondingly greater, if the vibrational period remains unchanged. The reciprocal of this period, is called the "frequency". Now as to that vibrating thing which generates the sonic disturbance, if this wave- generator should itself require a greater degree of stiffness than it had before, then it will vibrate at a higher frequency. The effect of inertial mass, on the other hand-whether this be the mass of the vibrating generator (tuning fork, or what have you) or the mass of every air molecule should be to furnish the momentum (mass times speed equals urge to keep on moving). Because of this momentum, the direction of motion cannot be reversed suddenly, and so this mass delays the reversal of each phase of the wave cycle, The frequency may be decreased, not only by lowering the stiffness value of the vibrator, but by raising the value of its mass.
Similar considerations should hold true also for vibrating atoms of matter, consisting of and immersed in Fricke's ether.
Resonance in a mechanical system —
Suppose that we have a steel coil spring attached at its upper end to a rafter and have a iron weight hanging from its lower end. With a hammer we tap the bottom of the weight, experimenting with many different frequencies of tapping. If the tapping frequency be quite high, then the mechanical shocks may cause the convolutions of "turns" of the spring to shake vertically, and as we decrease the frequency the number of nodes may decrease until the whole spring begins to respond, but the weight may prove to he too sluggish in its response.
If we reduce the number of taps per second until we are nudging the weight more slowly, then the entire system will begin to oscillate vertically with considerable amplitude, but this response will eventually die down if we reduce the tapping frequency further to one tap per minute. Thus we find out that at some "best results" frequency, called the frequency of resonance, the spring and the weight bob up and down in step with a certain rate of tapping, that best-result rate.
An electronic equivalent circuit —
Following Hertz, Marconi, and other scientists, engineers soon put the results of the new field of scientific research to practical uses, and to make further improvements. That is the specific function  of an engineer, in relation to any science. In this case the new science was Electronics.
Engineers with insight and wisdom began to compare electrical and mechanical resonances with each other. Just as a weighted spring behaves as though it prefers one frequency of transmitted mechanical shock to all others, so the equivalent of this system in electronics passes AC voltage of a certain frequency but acts as a resistor of all other frequencies in the circuit. Calculations based equivalent circuits aid an engineer in his understanding of how to improve upon mechanical systems, such as cones and baffle-cabinets of a radio loudspeaker system.
A clear example of a "series circuit" is the complete connection of colored Christmas tree lamps with a wall outlet. But while the parts of a "series resonant circuit" are quite different from lamps, they too are connected in series with each other. A series resonant circuit includes a resistor, a coil, and a capacitor - sometimes only the later two - and these parts are connected in a series. Now if these parts have suitable value ratings, the series resonant circuit made from them will resonantly conduct through itself and frequency of fluctuating current we choose. This circuit is "equivalent to" a weighted spring. In this case, the capacitor and the spring play similar roles, but the coil and the iron weight seem to cater to the low frequencies, thus playing a complementary role.
Consider the value ratings for the electrical parts and for the mechanical parts. The capacitance of a "condenser" is rated in farads; in radio work the usual values of capacitors are much smaller. For use as a mechanical equivalent of capacitance we have the "compliance" of the steel spring, rated in centimeters peer dyne. A "dyne" is a unit of force, in the metric system of units. If we apply the same number of dynes of force to compress several different springs (also to stretch them) we should find that the stiffer springs will have the lesser values of compliance. The compliance is equal to the reciprocal of the stiffness, for stiffness is measured in dynes per centimeter. As to the coil and the iron weight: the inductance of a coil is rated in henrys. The mechanical analog of inductance is the inertial mass (in grams) of the suspended iron-excluding the effect of gravity, of course.
The above correlation between a weighted spring and a series resonant circuit is too simple for use as an "as if" model for description of crystal objects, Many crystals can transmit several colors of visible light. As many different frequencies of ether-wave will therefore get through the interspaces between the ions clustered in groups throughout each crystal. In order to let all those colors through, the interspace ether must act as if it were a composite network of many different series resonant circuits that are "shunted across" one another. All of their capacitances would seem to have the same value in common, an extremely small fractions of a farad, if the high pressure of the ether be uniform throughout the interspaces. The series resonant circuits would then differ from one another only in inductance values, which are presumably due to various different sizes (and masses) of ambient vortices present in the interspace ether.
Kinds of density —
In scientific literature, i.e. technical journals, more than one kind of "density" is mentioned. The kinds most frequently used in physics magazines "electron density" (or number of electrons per unit volume) and "energy density", besides the mass-density. The meaning of ‘grain-density' seems self-evident. However, "vibration-density" although seldom mentioned as such, can nevertheless be expressed by associating together (in a common region) two other kinds of density: a high grain-density with a low mass density.
All BSRA discussions in which the word "density" is used, should specify what kind of density is meant. ls it mass-density? ls it grain-density? Or is it some other density, such as energy-density (work-density) or power-density? Power being the same as work divided by the time during which the work is being done, it would seem that the power-density in some instances mean work multiplied by frequency-density , and in some other instances, energy-density per vibrational cycle period. It pays to be very sure of the smallest details, and to agree upon then by convention, as this precaution will avoid repeated confusion.
In conclusion we print the following note, taken from our "Clips, Quotes, and Comments," D-9 of May 1, 1955:
Associate Lindy Millard, by reasoning from electrical analogues, has made a rigorous mathematical derivation of the following generalized basic formula for the ether itself where optical waves are being propagated:
Square root of Pressure over K x Sq. root of Mass-Density: where K is a constant that may depend on the material substance with the ether.
FREQUENCY DEPENDS ON THE INVERSE SQUARE ROOT OF MASS-DENSITY OF THE ETHER ITSELF!
- Millard, Lindy. A Unitary Field Theory on the Basis of the Ether-Vortex Concept. San Diego, Calif.: BSRA, 1957. [Re-edition through BSRF, <#B0035, "Ether-Vortex Concept">]
- Krafft, Carl F. The Mechanistic Autonomy of Nature. Washington, D.C: C.F. Krafft, 1937. Print. [Re-edition through BSRF, <#B0465, "The Mechanistic Autonomy of Nature">]
- Krafft, Carl F. Ether and Matter. Richmond, Va: Dietz, 1945. Print. [Re-edition through BSRF, <#B0464, "Ether And Matter">]
- Krafft, Carl F. The Ether and Its Vortices. Annandale, Va., 1955. Print. [Re-edition through BSRF, <#B0031, "The Ether and its Vortices">]