by William F. Hamilton

IT MAY COME AS A "SHOCK" to realize that our very life depends on electricity. Not only does your body operate on changing electrical potentials, but the essential structure of the universe is based on fundamental electric charges, fields, and waves. Nature's electrical generators are most evident in piezoelectricity, static electricity, and atmospheric electricity. The sheer, raw power of electricity unleashes its fury daily in thousands of lightning bolts. The magnitude of the volts behind these bolts can reach a startling 100 million between the ground and the base of a thunder-cloud. 1

Science has accumulated a lot of facts about electricity in terms of electron generation, electron flow, electrical current, and voltage sources. The classical model of the atom depicts the electron as a suborbital vehicle or carrier of negative charge. The nuclear proton is arbitrarily assigned a positive charge. The opposite polarity charges are said to be equal in field strength. The Neutron lacks charge or is a composite particle (wavicle/vorticle) of balanced charges.

In physics or electrical engineering the source of all electrical effects is the electric charge. The magnitude of the force between two electric charges in vacuum is given by Coulomb's Law: the force is directly proportional to Q1, and Q2 which are the two values of charge measured in coulombs and inversely proportional to the area of permittivity of free space (equal to 8.854 x 10-12 farad/meter) times the square of the distance between center of the charges in meters. The direction of the force is along the line of the two charges. If the two charge are of the same polarity, the force repels the charges from each other. The fundamental mechanism behind this is not explained. It is just a statement of observation. 2

The fundamental charged particle is the electron which has a charge of 1.60210 x 10-19 and a mass of 9.10908 x 10-31 kilograms. A charge has a region of influence that is defined as a field. The field permeates the space around a charge or is a special alteration of space itself. In classical physics, the electron has a radius of 10-13cm. The negative charge was considered distributed around this minute sphere. Physicists then calculated that the negative charge on one part of the electron spheroid would repel the negative charge of another spherical section and cause the electron to explode. In quantum field theory, the electron is considered as a point-particle. Of course with a point-particle, the electrical potential reaches infinity at dead center. Another dilemma.

Other fields that permeate or alter space are gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The source of these fields resides in a mass or object that itself may be a fundamental field or alteration of space. A yet undetermined relationship exists between the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. In the attempt to unify the forces into one theoretical construct is now referred to as a Grand Unified Theory. A more grandiose term is: Theory of Everything. This is, of course, the ultimate in human hubris.

The nature of electrical charge is a mystery. We make use of it everyday. But the common facts about electricity are not complete and anomalous electrical behavior has been noted by several experimenters. These anomalies could lead us to an even better understanding concerning the nature of electricity. In order to limit this discussion, I will cite a few anomalous electrical effects that produce contra-gravitational force.

Dr. Francis Nipher, once professor of physics at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri performed a modification of the Cavendish experiment in 1916-17. Cavendish used a delicate torsion balance to determine the density of the earth. Nipher used a one-inch lead ball suspended with an untwisted silk thread approximately 180 cm long and centered inside a 5-inch-square box or Faraday Shield. A horizontal slit in the box's side permitted Dr. Nipher to observe deflections. He placed an insulated 10-inch-diameter lead sphere next to the iron box. A copper wire connected the large sphere to the metal box to keep them at the same potential. The large sphere was mounted on hard rubber plate. When the large sphere was electrified using a high-voltage influence generator, the normal gravitational attraction of the two spheres was reversed and the small suspended sphere was repelled from the larger by about twice the deflection caused by gravity. Reversing polarity did not alter the effect. When substituting low-voltage AC in place of the H-V influence generator, a repulsion effect was still observed, but one of smaller value. 3

Mr. George S. Piggot conducted even more amazing experiments in 1904 using a powerful electrostatic generator. He made use of an apparatus that had a rotating spherical electrode mounted on a stand. He was able to suspend, against gravity, small metal balls by means of a strong electric field. Extending for about 5 cm. around the perimeter of the objects was a mysterious dark band. He also succeeded in suspending nonmetallic objects such as cork and wood. These objects would oscillate up and down around the center of the field. An improved Wimshurst generator supplied the spherical electrode with approximately 500,000 volts of potential.

Townsend Brown's experiments with suspended charged capacitors also demonstrated a contra-gravity effect. When the capacitor was charged, it exhibited a forward thrust towards the positive pole. When the capacitor was mounted vertically on a beam balance, the positive pole vectored thrust exhibited a lifting effect counter to gravity. This did not involve the expulsion of charged particles to produce thrust as in an ion rocket. Brown felt he discovered a principle of electro-gravitation.

If positive and negative charges are equipotential, then what would cause an unbalanced force between charges? If we lived in a sea of predominantly negative charge, then the action of positive attraction and negative repulsion would work mutually to produce a thrust vector in the direction [35] of the positive pole. That would constitute a testable hypothesis.

John Searl is said to have employed an unique method of defying gravity using a continuous rotation of cylindrical magnets around a magnetic annulus. A very high electrostatic charge is said to develop between the rollers and the ring producing the Searl levity effect. His generator supposedly levitated of its own accord and generated a pink corona, however, this story has never been verified, or the effect reproduced. However, the Searl disk is claimed to have had a very high potential difference between the center section and rim of the disk, an effect actually noted in the de Palma N Machine. Is the Biefield-Brown effect, as discovered by Townsend Brown, incorporated within the operating principles of these rotating devices? Can a powerful electrostatic field produce an artificial gravitational field or modify the ambient gravity field?

It is said that the Austrian "Water Wizard" Victor Schauberger built a flying saucer during World War II for the Germans. Schauberger's device rotated fluids in a hyperbolic vortex that generated high electrical potentlals and a consequent levity effect.

The claimed results of these experiments should cause us to ponder and reconsider the current theoretical dogma regarding the laws of electricity and the nature of electrical charge. This should lead us into further physical experimentation to discover the truth of the matter.

The problem of the nature of electrical charge is tied to the problem of space. Einstein considered the concept of field when thinking of problems in electrodynamics. He rejected the idea of the existence of a form of matter called "aether" especially because it reinvoked the idea of an absolute frame of reference. On the basis of the general theory of relativity, space as opposed to what fills space, which is dependent on coordinates, has no separate existence. Space, in the general theory, is not space without a field, but a special case of the gravitational field. Thus, Einstein concludes, there is no such thing as an empty space, i.e. a space without field. In his attempts at a Unified Field Theory, Einstein attempted to reconcile the gravitational held and the electromagnetic field. Einstein conceived space as part of a higher dimension which causes space to warp and bend in the presence of mass. However, this invests space with the properties of a solid. A solid can warp, bend, and convey waves. 5

In quantum field theory, the electron was reduced to a zero-radius point-particle. This raised the problem of infinite energy. This problem was handled through the mathematical technique of re-normalization. To circumvent the problems found in quantum field theory, string theory has been introduced. In string theory, particles like the electron are one-dimensional strings, perhaps joined in closed loops, with different modes of vibration. Again, higher dimension spaces are invoked to maintain a mathematical consistency with experiment.

There are scientists who find these exotic physical theories wanting, and the lack of mechanical models a hindrance to a real understanding of particle physics.

One thing that hints that our mathematical only models of space, particles, and charge are wrong are certain experiments in particle physics. Dr. Alan D. Krisch performed proton-proton collision experiments using the Zero Gradient Synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratories and found that when two protons spin in the same sense and collide, they scatter as expected. When the two protons spin in an anti-parallel sense, they do not deflect, regardless of mutual like charges, but appear to pass through each other like ghosts! These protons are behaving like vortex rings in a fluid medium. Antiparallel vortices will not repel, but attract each other. Charge polarity seems to arbitrarily depend on spin sense and mutual interaction.

New ether theories have been proposed to account for the existing experimental phenomena and produce visualizable models. These theories should also predict new phenomena that, when subjected to experiment, should be in agreement with prediction. These theories postulate that space is permeated with a fluid medium of energy or that space itself is composed of a fluid. Its almost as if the universe itself were a giant liquid drop of undifferentiated fluid that differentiated by virtue of its internal dynamics.

William M. Honig of the Western Australian Institute of Technology has proposed a Grand Unified Theory based on a physical model for vacuum space consisting of the superposition of oppositely charged continuous fluids. Models for the photon, electron, neutrino, and proton consist of unique variations in the relative densities of the fluids and their flow patterns.

Eric J. Lerner in his recent book, The Big Bang Never Happened, points to the Krisch experiments and his own calculations to state that particles formed from vortices in some fluid is certainly worth investigating.

The Indian nuclear engineer, Parmahamsa Tewari, has developed a complete theory of space vortices based on a substantial space medium possessing non-material properties. The electron, in Tewari's model, is a spherical vortex with a void core. The flow of the medium in a circulating motion at velocity c produces the energy we call charge. An electron will have a clock-wise vortex (negative charge) and a positron an anti-clockwise vortex (positive charge).

In my own theorizing I believe the electron is producing an outwardly-directed pressure gradient on the surrounding space medium due to its vortex rotation. This pressure gradient is identical to the electrostatic field. According to the law of Continuity for a moving stream of fluid, the density times the cross sectional area of the flow times the velocity must always be constant. Therefore, if the static pressure of the space medium is equivalent to gravitation, and the dynamic pressure is equivalent to electric field, then as the dynamic pressure increases, the static pressure decreases, always maintaining a constant. This establishes an inverse relationship between gravitation and electricity. If there is pressure along one axis, then there is tension along the orthogonal axis. These lines of tension could be equivalent to a magnetic field.

Some of the ideas expressed here are only rudimentary and introductory and are designed to stimulate further thinking with regards to unexplained physical phenomena. Why do Brown's capacitors exhibit thrust? How does a high-voltage field cause levitation? Can we tap the dynamic energy flows of space? When we start to consider these questions perhaps we will move closer to a greater understanding of the nature of electricity and the ether of space.


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